Long-term changes in the frequency of exceptionally cold and warm months and seasons at selected stations in Europe in the early instrumental period / Magdalena Skrzyńska, Robert Twardosz, Adam WALANUS // International Journal of Climatology ; ISSN 0899-8418. — 2023 — vol. 43 iss. 15, s. 7292–7307. — Bibliogr. s. 7306–7307, Abstr. — Publikacja dostępna online od: 2023-09-29
- Skrzyńska Magdalena
- Twardosz Robert
- AGHWalanus Adam
|Data dodania do BaDAP
|artykuł w czasopiśmie
|International Journal of Climatology
Extreme thermal conditions have been known for a long time as is evidenced by the oldest preserved historical accounts referring to weather. However, direct data, that is, air temperature measurements, which began in Europe in the 17th century, are the only reliable source of information. They provide insight into how climate evolved over the characteristic period of the climate timeline known as the Little Ice Age. This study focuses on extreme climatic phenomena, referred to here as exceptionally cold (EC) and exceptionally warm (EW) months and seasons that occurred in the early instrumental period (until 1830). The research is based on average monthly air temperature values (of different lengths) from five meteorological stations in Europe. The Central England Temperature series (CET) offers the longest series that spans 172 years whereas Padua has the shortest, 57 years. Consequently, the year 1659, which is the start date of the Central England Temperature series, marks the beginning of the study period for the research presented in this article. Thermally anomalous periods are identified based on the standard deviation of the average temperature from the corresponding long-term average (1831–2020). The highlights of the study include the identification of the pronounced prevalence at all five stations of EC months and seasons when compared to EW months and seasons, especially in Western Europe (CET) during the Maunder Minimum. The study also finds a lack of synchronicity in the timing of the anomalous periods under investigation in the different parts of Europe. © 2023 Royal Meteorological Society.