Szczegóły publikacji

Opis bibliograficzny

A glimpse into raw material management in the Early Iron Age: bronze ingots from a production settlement in Wicina (Western Poland) in archaeometallurgical research / A. GARBACZ-KLEMPKA, K. Dzięgielewski, M. WARDAS-LASOŃ // Archives of Metallurgy and Materials / Polish Academy of Sciences. Committee of Metallurgy. Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science ; ISSN 1733-3490. — 2024 — vol. 69 iss. 1, s. 163–180. — Bibliogr. s. 177–180, Abstr.

Autorzy (3)

Słowa kluczowe

castingED-XRFarchaeometallurgyingotscopper alloysWicinaSEM-EDSEarly Iron Age

Dane bibliometryczne

ID BaDAP151856
Data dodania do BaDAP2024-03-22
Tekst źródłowyURL
Rok publikacji2024
Typ publikacjiartykuł w czasopiśmie
Otwarty dostęptak
Creative Commons
Czasopismo/seriaArchives of Metallurgy and Materials


Assessing the level of metallurgical and foundry technology in prehistoric times requires the examination of raw material finds, including elongated ingots, which served as semi-finished products ready for further processing. It is rare to find such raw material directly at production settlements, but Wicina in western Poland is an exception. During the Hallstatt period (800-450 BC), this area, situated along the middle Oder River, benefited from its favorable location in the heart of the Central European Urnfield cultures and developed networks for raw material exchange and bronze foundry production. Numerous remnants of casting activities, such as clay casting molds, casting systems, and raw materials, have been discovered at the Wicina settlement. This article aims to provide an archaeometallurgical interpretation of raw material management and utilization by prehistoric communities during the Early Iron Age. To achieve this, a collection of 31 ingots from the defensive settlement in Wicina, along with two contemporary deposits from Bieszków and Kumiałtowice, both found within a 20 km radius of the stronghold, were studied. Investigations were conducted using a range of methods, including optical microscopy(OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (ED-XRF), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), AAS and ­ICP-OES spectrometer. The significance of ingots is examined in the context of increasing social complexity and the rising popularity of bronze products, which necessitated diversified production and a demand for raw materials with different properties and, consequently, different chemical compositions.

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